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Ecoland in Russia.
A. And I.Kuljasovy
These special cases were chosen as the most successful examples Russian
ecolands. All these settlements exist till some years, there is their gradual development, the quantity of inhabitants grows. Each example ecolands belongs to one of three types ecolands: protolands, actually a settlement and a megasettlement (Shubin, 1998 : 9). Each settlement - the versatile organization substantially providing the needs on a place.
On this classification Nevo-Ecovil is
protoland. Under protoland the initiative group of people which aspires to creation of a community is understood, already has for this purpose the ground and habitation. Thus from members of group on a place a little bit person constantly lives. The part of initiative group will carry out the most part of time while outside of a settlement. (Shubin,1998:9). Leader Nevo-Ekovilja the most part of time together with family lives in regional centre Sortovala for twenty kilometers from a settlement. In the same place there are offices of public organization "Nevo-Ecovil" and firm " world " which accepts active participation in development Nevo-Ecovil. A part of inhabitants of this settlement constantly live in it, and a part leave it for some months. The quantity constantly living for today is not exceeded by 11 person.
Kitej - the most typical example actually
ecoland. Actually the settlement is a community number in some tens and no more than three hundreds person conducting information-agrarian (spiritual - creative, other variants of the name are possible also) a way of life. In spite of the fact that its members will carry out the basic part of life in a community, they socially and are spiritually active, participate in public life outside a community. Otherwise it will be only a traditional rural settlement (Shubin, 1998 : 9). Kitej totals some tens constantly living in it the person which conduct a spiritual - creative way of life. Kitej cooperates with other public organizations in Russia and abroad and also with state and commercial structures. In particular Kitej supports constant partner attitudes with known community Findhorn in Scotland, carries out exchange trips of members of a community abroad and inside the country.
Tiberkul it is possible to attribute to a category of megasettlements. A megasettlement - the alternative settlement designed for many hundreds and even thousand of people (Shubin, 1998 : 9). Settlement Tiberkul totals some thousand person and is ready to unlimited quantitative growth. Besides it is a complex settlement on the structure, uniting in itself six settlements.
Each phenomenon i
ecoland s unique and has the specificity. At the same time there is a number(line) of the moments which are similar in all investigated ecolands. All three ecolands have arisen in the beginning of the ninetieth years. This time can be characterized, as disorder of Soviet Union and becoming of the new national states formed from former Soviet republics. The Russian state at this time was in a deep economic crisis, in conditions of social instability. At this time the Russian society especially sharply experienced ideological crisis. The prevailing communistic ideology was replaced by pluralism of opinions and ideas, in a society various groups with the ideology, outlook, understanding of occuring process of transformation began to be formed. The opportunity of display on the Russian ground of the world tendency of creation ecolands at this time has appeared. The tendency this is caused by the new environmental problems, new engineering and the technologies, a new level of consciousness, understanding of importance of a steady way of life (Gilman, 1994 : 11). Researched by us ecolands it is possible to consider as attempt of people which have appeared in the world where "rules of game" quickly vary to create structure (a small society) which would help them to survive and realize the ideals. Inhabitants of all settlements it is former city intelligency: engineering technical workers, teachers, doctors, former militarians, creative workers. The majority has higher education. These people lived in the cities, many had no experience of conducting an agriculture and life in a countryside. Some had a small operational experience with the ground due to summer residences. In everyone ecoland people from different cities of Russia have gathered, many have arrived from the countries of the CIS (former Soviet Republics). For many the economic crisis appeared heavy test. Many inhabitants ecolands before arrival them changed residences, moved from city in city, changed a place of work. These general moments are the precondition of legitimacy of the comparative analysis practice the feed, accepted in these ecolands. Practice of a feed in ecolands cannot be understood without the description ecolands, therefore the first part of our clause is devoted to the brief characteristic of everyone ecoland. In this part we shall consider settlements under the following circuit: the status, the characteristic of territory, quantity the person, the basic purposes and values, questions of the property and money, primary orientation to the certain doctrine.
In the second part of article we shall stop directly on practice a feed in
ecolands. Under practices a feed we understand: a diet and the basic food stuffs in ecolands (that the diet, the basic technologies of preparation of food, a rule of preparation and the use of food eat), (as eat), ideological substantiations of a feed (why eat it so). Also we shall consider communication of a feed with their local agricultural production. As on practice of a feed in the data ecolands influences not only ideology of a feed, but also practice of the agriculture, used in everyone ecoland and caused as the values accepted in ecolands, and natural to conditions. In this article we shall not consider specially an environment, and we shall emphasize values.
Article is written on the basis of a material received during five expeditions, taking place in 1996-1998 years, in three
ecoland to Russia: Nevo-Ecovil, Kitej, Tiberkul. In research ecoland we used qualitative sociological methods: biographic interview, the focus - group, the included supervision, the analysis of texts of documents ecolands, texts of the doctrines influencing ideology of a feed, audio and video of materials. Materials of interview and focus of groups were transkribirovan, are brought in the computer and coded. In Nevo-Ecovil it was carried out 3 expeditions. In the first, the autumn of 1996, carried out participating supervision, in February and October, 1998, biographic interviews. 21 interviews it was taken at all inhabitants of a settlement. In Kitej 1 expedition in December, 1998 was carried out, all adult inhabitants of a settlement were interrogated, is taken 23 biographic interviews. In Tiberkul 1 expedition during which it was taken 50 interviews which most part small part focused on the certain problem is carried out is biographic. The choice of respondents was carried out by techniques of casual sample, snow whom, theoretical saturation. The method of biographic interview was used as the basic method of interview, in consequence of the complex approach to research, as case study (Berto, 1997 : 14-22). During expeditions ecoland were considered as a whole, studying practice a feed was only a part of complex research.
The brief characteristic
Let's characterize consistently three researched
ecolands. We shall consider protoland Nevo-Ecovil. Here is how has characterized the status of the settlement his leader: "we not "collective farm ", not a community, not sect, not seasonal concourse, and not ecoland, (but only we study). We - group of the free people voluntary participating in realization of the certain program working on concrete territory" (Potters, 1998 : 17). This settlement has the official status ecoland. It develops since 1994, being guided mainly on own resources. In 1995 "Nevo-Ecovil" became a part of a global network ecolands, and has received the grant for 50 000 dollars from the Danish organization " Gaja Trust ", supporting a network ecolands worldwide, on construction of communications. On the received means the site of road from a settlement up to highway and an electric main was constructed. In Sortovala (the regional centre) is created office of the Centre of ecological initiatives "Nevo-Ecovil" with means of the communications (the computer, a fax etc.) . But the most part of the received means used on strengthening manufacture building - architectural workshops " worlds " which, due to this, organizations "Nevo-Ecovil" began to belong on 70 %. It was an atypical investment grand`s means, but people it was possible to convince " Gaja Trust " of legitimacy of such expenditure of money. It was the unique grant of which has taken advantage "Nevo-Ecovil". One of installations of a settlement is, that the organization itself should earn money and expect mainly for the forces, instead of to the aid from the outside. Each family has the site of the ground which are not belonging to the organization and independently earns money to development of an own facilities, "World" contains office in Sortovala, allocates money to the general needs: purchase of fuel for a tractor, fire wood for heating, construction of the general(common) premises(rooms), repair of road, the organization volunteer`s camp, payment of a cellular telephone etc. However, the economic situation in the country is those, that the small civil engineering firm at present is not capable to earn enough means for realization of many programs and plans. "Nevo-Ecovil" cooperates with local administration and the government of republic Karelia. Now together with administration of. Sortovala and Sortovala`s the study of local lore museum develops the project of giving of a part Northern Priladogia the status of historic-natural reserve that will allow to develop ecological tourism and educational ecological programs in this territory. There is a communication with other ecological settlements in Russia and abroad, mainly information. The leader of this settlement heads two structures providing ability to live Nevo-Ecovil: public organization - the Centre of ecological initiatives Nevo-Ecovil and industrial structure - architectural - building workshops " worlds ". Besides in ecoland operates nursery a facilities on cultivation zoned seedling fruiters and bushes. Ecoland borrows small territory on surburb of settlement Reuskula in Sortoval'skom area of the Karelian republic on a coast of lake Satusaari which is part Priladojia. Besides ecoland the territory in 29 hectares, located on peninsula opposite to settlement Reuskula belongs. Before the Russia-Finnish war of 1939 on this peninsula were Finnish farm. The bases of houses were kept till now. While the territory remains not mastered because of insufficiency of financial and human resources. The group making Nevo-Ecovil, totals 22 adults and 11 children.
The basic purpose of the organization ecoland- creation of a steady settlement on principles of life in harmony with a nature, with use ecotehnologes, providing economic independence and development. In Nevo-Ecovil life is under construction on such values, as a personal and family autonomy, a support on own forces, an openness, good neighbourhood, naturalness of development, formation of ecological outlook. In Nevo-Ecovil there is no prevailing ideology, inhabitants cannot be named followers of any doctrine. But ideas of Alive Ethics - ideas E.I. And N.K.Rerihov, L.N.thick's ideas rendered significant influence on outlook of inhabitants ecoland. In doctrine of Rerih the general principles of complete outlook and postmaterialistic global pictures of the world are expressed. " In the supreme representation the Spirit and the Matter are uniform, two principles are merged and represent a uniform element: Absolut contains in itself all final and infinite, shown and not shown, visible and hidden. " (Rerih E., 1992 : 384) " the Law of the Universe is identical, but vibrations of it(him) are various, therefore so the universe "is various. (Rerih E., 1992 : 175). Problems of relations of the person and a nature (in wide value of this word) - a semantic nucleus of this philosophy. The Earth and the person are considered as the parts of the universe developing according to space laws of evolution, general for all universe, including the Earth, all alive essences and the person." The essence of evolution consists in development of ability of various forms of life to raise the vibrations and to perceive from every possible vibrations starting with the Uniform Source, more and more high and thin, appropriate to aspirations of the given life in the given epoch ". (Klizovski, 1991 : 77). Space laws of evolution are distributed not only on macroproces of planet scale, but also daily life of the separate individual. The individual - essence microcosm of the universe. It means, that daily his practice should correspond to the general laws. Among such practices, practice of a feed are considered as the basic, as regulators of a metabolism between space and the person, guaranteeing and not destroying balance of the person and a nature. Therefore in the analysis of the ideological reasons of food preferences we shall specify these doctrines.
Let's consider actually - Kitej. This settlement has the status of a pedagogical community - noncommercial partnership of families on education of reception children. In it(him) lives 27 adults and 25 children. In 1993 on construction of Kitej it was allocated in termless possession of 90 hectares of the ground in Barjatinskom area of the Kaluga area, near to village Chymazovo. Members of a community and volunteers the hands have constructed 11 houses in which families with reception children were placed, school and workshops. The chapel, garage, a farm later were constructed. Housekeeping and management is carried out by elective members of a community. The community lives on the modest means selected with the state on children, accumulation in the general cash department teacher's salaries income and the sponsor's help on which houses in particular were constructed. In a community there is no private property. All property belongs to a community. All money received are spent by a community for the general needs. Each adult member of a community receives on personal charges only small sum, no more than 50 roubles per one month. Money are given out to a member of a community by advice of a community in case trip for limits of a community is necessary for him. The basic purpose of creation of a community this education of children, creation of the unique educational environment rendering complex influence on the child. In a community the problem of fast completion of backlog of children - orphans from the contemporary, and also creation of conditions for psihologo-pedagogical growth of parents is put. The basic values of community Kitej are: the right on self-realization both for the child, and for the adult; a community understood as general welfare, representing synthesis of personal interests of all members of a community; the Teacher, as the carrier of spiritual culture, a rod figure in education of children; culture and formation(education), as the basic orientation in activity of a community. The same as and in Nevo-Ecovil, in Kitej there is no prevailing ideology. At the same time the founder and spiritual leader Kitezha pupil S.N.Reriha, was deep studied works E.I. And N.K.Rerihov, culture of India. On outlook of many members of a community too serious influence rendered ideas of erih. Many are close to orthodox cultural tradition.
Let's consider megasettlement Tiberkul. This settlement has the official status econoosfer settlements "Tiberkul". It is in Southern Siberia, in Kuraginskom area of Krasnoyarsk Region. It followers of Vissarion, based in 1991 have created church of Last Precept and proclaimed the second coming of the Christ to the Earth. In second half of 1994 the initiative group of followers Vissariona has proposed to create in a taiga, at lake Tiberkul`, ecoland, and territory the area 300 sq. km with 5 already existing villages to issue as reserve. For these purposes the ecological program was developed and the ground area with the area 250 ga on mountain Dry near lake Tiberkul' is allocated. In August, 1997 public association "econoosfer`s the settlement "Tiberkul" became a member of the international Social - ecological Union under the name " Krasnoyarsk problem branch "Tiberkul". Except for public organization the community has joint-stock company "Tabrat" for realization of the general economic and cultural activity.
Investigated the settlement has some territories for moving. The first territory which actually is not territory settlements, is extensive territory of Southern Siberia where in various existing villages groups of visitors of cities of followers Vissariona lodge. Here for a long time there are basically lonely men and women, the mothers - singles released from jails, problem families. In these villages people lodge at own discretion, expecting blessing of Vissarion on a residence in territory itself settlements "Tiberkul".
The second - territory itself settlements "Tiberkul". Villages Petropavlovka concern to them, Cheremshanka, Gyliaevka, Jarovsk, Tiberkul. Full families live in them basically with children or without children, believing, and also incomplete families where someone from members of family is the master or responsible for the important direction of communal work, i.e. people active. In the future this territory should enter territory of reserve, about borders and which status at present there are negotiations with administrations of territory and the Russian Federation.
The third territory - a part builded in a taiga ecoland, is on mountain Dry near lake Tiberkul' where the City of the Sun is under construction, either City of Masters, or New Jerusalem, its area makes about 60 hectares. There on a residence the full families ratified in belief receive the blessing of Vissarion only, on same area there is a Heavenly Monastery or the Monastery of Dawn where are under construction house ??????????, houses of apostles, priests, a temple "Stone - heart", a temple "Creed" etc. cult structures. Actually Tiberkul totals about 3000 person - followers Vissariona, living in 6 settlements in the second and third territory. Questions of the property for today are solved in ecoland differently. In villages where except for followers Vissariona local residents live, each family provides itself. At the same time mutual aid of families, frequently gratuitous is distributed. Such free aid is value. In City of the Sun builded in a taiga there is no private property. All means communities acting to members are accumulated in the general cash department, on them all is bought necessary and distributed according to the decision of a community. Members of a community working on public works inside a community do not receive a payment, outside of a community they basically do not work. Money in a community as a whole and at its members is means basically from sale of the city apartments, other property, personal savings brought with itself, and as monthly state pensions to pensioners and children's allowances. In ecoland refusal of monetary unit is proclaimed, therefore members do not aspire to to earn money. Refusal of money is provided first of all inside a community, and in due course and in mutual relation of a community with "world". "World" is understood as all society, except for the community. The community to aspire to leave on a level of self-maintenance. Management in a community is carried out by general meeting. Thus questions of ability to live on which there are disagreements will be readdressed Vissarion which authority is indisputable.
The basic purpose of creation ecoland is formation in the certain territory of " Uniform people " and special cultures (Vadim, 1995). The basic values are: belief, a community, the Teacher, a nonviolence, life in harmony with a nature, self-maintenance on a basis ecotehnology. All life in it ecoland is based on the precepts given Vissarion in Last Precept.
Despite of essential distinctions between researched ecolands, it is possible to note, that before all settlements there is a problem of construction of life in harmony with a nature.
The literature:
Schubin A. 1998. An alternative community: exotic or road to the future?
Magazine Certify as ill Moscow ISAR. 7, p. 9
Furta S. It is dear in Kitej, in the same place, with. 13-14
Potter I. Nevo - a name ancient:, in the same place, with. 15-18
Gilman R. 1994. eco-villages and steady settlements. Saint Petersburg From - in the Centre of Civil Initiatives, with 11
Berto D. 1997. Utility of stories about life for realistic and significant sociology.
The collection on edition Voronkov V., Zdravomyslova E. A biographic method in studying postsocialist societies. Saint Petersburg, with. 14-22.
Borovik V., Roshchina T. 1997. Sources of health, Saint Petersburg. IK the complete Set, with. 247.
Vadim. 1995. Last Precept. Saint Petersburg. From - in Open Society " Ivan Feodor ", with. 38, 160, 521.
Harmony through vegetarianism. 1992. Editor Shalogramo Das. Saint Petersburg. Society of VedoCulture.
Schri Ayrobindo. 1995. Regeneration and carm. Moscow. "Fair".
Rerih Elena. 1992. Letters in 2 volumes. Minsk. Byelorussian fund Rerihov, "Pramed".
Klizovski I. 1991. Bases of outlook of new epoch. Riga. Vieda, p.77.
From: (Ivan Pavlovich Kuljasov)
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